[61] Observers coined a new term for the undesirable combination of unemployment and inflation: "stagflation," a phenomenon that would worsen after Nixon left office. [225] These hearings, which were televised, culminated in votes for articles of impeachment, the first being 27–11 in favor on July 27, 1974 on obstruction of justice; six Republicans voted "yes" along with all 21 Democrats. Nixon received his party’s presidential nomination and was opposed in the 1960 general election by Democrat John F. Kennedy. To prevent the possibility of further U.S. intervention in Vietnam, Congress passed the War Powers Resolution over Nixon's veto. Though he enforced the court orders, Nixon believed that "forced integration of housing or education" was just as improper as legal segregation, and he took a strong public stance against its continuation. [217] In April 1973, Nixon dismissed Haldeman, Erlichman, and Attorney General Richard Kleindienst in April 1973, replacing Kleindienst with Elliot Richardson. February 1972: Richard Nixon shaking hands with Zhou Enlai after landing in China. ", Dean J. Kotlowski, "Nixon's southern strategy revisited. [226] Meanwhile, in the courts and in Congress, developments continued to propel the unfolding saga toward a climax. 8 Robert Mason, Richard Nixon and the Quest for a New Majority (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004). The income, outlay, deficit, and debt figures are calculated for the, Represents the national debt held by the public as a percentage of GDP, Stephen Macekura, "The limits of the global community: the Nixon administration and global environmental politics. He was elected to a second term on November 7, 1972 in one of the largest landslide election victories in American history. In 1974 and 1975, Nixon mandated daylight savings time year-round. Third-party candidate George Wallace (1919–1998) of Alabama, a threat to both sides, eventually drew support away from Humphrey and cleared a path for Nixon's successful election to the White House. “The Richard Nixon I met back in 1960,” Jackie Robinson concluded, “bore no resemblance to Richard Nixon as president.” Now, in 2020, President Trump is outdoing Nixon. While conducting negotiations with North Vietnam, U.S. President Richard M. Nixon began a program of “de-escalation,” or reduction of U.S. combat forces, and of “Vietnamization,” or development of South Vietnam's ability to wage war on its own. [207] In the aftermath of the elections, many conservative Southern Democratic congressmen seriously discussed the possibility of switching parties to give Republicans control of the House, but these talks were derailed by the Watergate scandal. Nixon then fired Richardson’s assistant, William Ruckelshaus, when he too refused to fire Cox. Whittaker Chambers testifying before the House Committee on Un-American Activities, 1948. George S. McGovern, in one of the largest landslide victories in the history of American presidential elections: 46.7 million to 28.9 million in the popular vote and 520 to 17 in the electoral vote. [152], Since the end of the Chinese Civil War, the United States had refused to formally recognize the People's Republic of China (PRC) as the legitimate government of China, though the PRC controlled Mainland China. [158], In February 1972, Nixon traveled to China; Kissinger briefed Nixon for over 40 hours in preparation. Although Nixon … [175] These efforts failed, and Allende took office in November 1970. [65], Public response to the FAP was highly favorable, but it faced strong opposition in Congress, partly due to the lack of congressional involvement in the drafting of the proposal. 9 William Costello, The Facts About Nixon: An Unauthorized Biography (New York: Viking, 1960), 93–176. On October 30, the House Judiciary Committee began consideration of possible impeachment procedures; the following day Leon Jaworski was named as Cox's replacement, and soon thereafter the president agreed to turn over the requested tapes. President Ford’s earliest acts included offering amnesty for those who had evaded the draft or deserted during the Vietnam War and pardoning Nixon for “all offenses against the United States.” This pardon made him massively unpopular. In the spring of 1970, U.S. and South Vietnamese forces attacked North Vietnamese sanctuaries in Cambodia, which prompted widespread protests in the United States; one of these demonstrations—at Many conservatives opposed the establishment of the national income floor, while many liberals believed that the floor was too low. [22], Humphrey's polling position improved in the final weeks of the campaign as he distanced himself from Johnson's Vietnam policies. Angered by the amendment, the Soviets canceled the 1972 trade agreement and reduced the number of Jews who were permitted to emigrate. The same force -- cautionary tale, here -- also destroyed him. [190] His success with the People's Republic of China and the Soviet Union bolstered his approval ratings in the lead-up to the 1972 presidential election, and he was the overwhelming favorite to be re-nominated at the start of the 1972 Republican primaries. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Nixo… He was buried beside his wife at his birthplace. The result was an expanded U.S. military presence and increased military activity in neutral Cambodia. In 1972, President Richard Nixon was able to create a new majority by winning 49 out of 50 states to … Nestled on 213 acres of meadow, woodland and aquatic habitats Nixon Park supports a wide variety of plant and animal life. U.S. Pres. In 1950 Nixon successfully ran for the United States Senate against Democratic Rep. [94] The administration also worked to increase the number of racial minorities hired across the nation in various construction trades, implementing the first affirmative action plan in the United States. [2][3][4], Richard Nixon had served as vice president from 1953 to 1961, and had been defeated in the 1960 presidential election by John F. Kennedy. [185] The embargo caused gasoline shortages and rationing in the United States in late 1973, but was eventually ended by the oil-producing nations as the Yom Kippur War peace took hold. [125] Conversely, Black argues that Nixon sincerely believed he could intimidate North Vietnam through the Madman theory. What he will be remembered for is the nightmare he put the country through in his second term and for his resignation. [249] Nixon saw his policies on Vietnam, China, and the Soviet Union as central to his place in history. [46] Nixon took office with one pending vacancy, as the Senate had rejected President Johnson's nomination of Associate Justice Abe Fortas to succeed retiring Chief Justice Earl Warren. When the Chilean newspaper El Mercurio requested significant funds for covert support in September 1971, Nixon personally authorized the funds in "a rare example of presidential micromanagement of a covert operation. [27] Despite Nixon's victory, Republicans failed to win control of either the House or the Senate in the concurrent congressional elections. The smoking gun had finally been found. When the nation's postal workers went on strike, he used the army to keep the postal system going. Those expectations were shattered by Senator Eugene McCarthy, who centered his campaign on opposition to Johnson's Vietnam policies. Nixon secured 301 electoral votes to Humphrey's 191 and 46 for Wallace. To date, he remains the only president to have resigned. Nixon and Franklin Roosevelt are the only two people to appear on a national presidential ticket five … Richard Nixon Nixon graduated from Whittier College in California in 1934 and from Duke University Law School in Durham, North Carolina, in 1937. A minor confrontation ensued, which was concluded with an understanding that the Soviets would not use Cienfuegos for submarines bearing ballistic missiles. [18] Throughout the year, Nixon portrayed himself as a figure of stability during a period of national unrest and upheaval. Visited NATO Southern Command. Nixon made four successful appointments to the Supreme Court while in office, shifting the Court in a more conservative direction following the era of the liberal Warren Court. In his first press conference, he noted that the United States would accept nuclear parity, rather than superiority, with the Soviet Union. For the nationally televised address from the Oval Office, see. Nixon then retired to private life in California, where he wrote a best-selling book, Despite expectations from some observers that Nixon would be a “do-nothing” president, his administration undertook a number of important reforms in welfare policy, civil rights, law enforcement, the, For their work on the accord, Kissinger and Tho were awarded the 1973, Nixon’s most significant achievement in foreign affairs may have been the establishment of direct relations with the. Discussed international monetary problems with French President, State visit. "[239] The initial response from network commentators was generally favorable, with only Roger Mudd of CBS stating that Nixon had evaded the issue, and had not admitted his role in the cover-up. [43] On October 10, 1973, Agnew pleaded no contest to tax evasion and became the second Vice President (after John C. Calhoun) to resign from office. In the 1970s, the Republican Party stood by President Richard Nixon when he gave unethical orders to fire executive-branch officials investigating the Watergate break-in/cover-up and when he defied congressional subpoenas. [235], At 11:00 a.m. on August 8, his last full day in office, Nixon informed Vice President Ford of his impending resignation. [57] In 1970, Congress granted the president the power to impose wage and price controls, though the Democratic congressional leadership, knowing Nixon had opposed such controls through his career, did not expect Nixon to actually use the authority. Slogan: Nixon's the One! Nixon was far ahead in the polls in the 1972 presidential election, but during the campaign, Nixon operatives conducted several illegal operations designed to undermine the opposition. And while his political strategy was cynical and ruthless, Nixon was a smart, hard-working man who took the job of being president seriously. [58] With inflation unresolved by August 1971, and an election year looming, Nixon convened a summit of his economic advisers at Camp David. In addition to his four Supreme Court appointments, Nixon appointed 46 judges to the United States Courts of Appeals, and 181 judges to the United States district courts. [203] Nixon, meanwhile, appealed to many working class Democrats who were repelled by the Democratic Party's positions on racial and cultural issues. After hasty attempts of “Vietnamization”—the process of training and arming South Vietnamese troops for fighting alone after U.S. forces would pull out—all U.S. troops were evacuated by March 29, 1973. [62] Business owners, however, now saw the controls as permanent rather than temporary, and voluntary compliance among small businesses decreased. Richard M. Nixon delivering his first inaugural address, January 20, 1969. Checkers” speech, in which he acknowledged the existence of the fund but denied that any of it had been used improperly. Official visit. Results of the American presidential election, 1960. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. "[245] Political historian and pollster Douglas Schoen argues that Nixon was the most important American figure in post-war U.S. politics, while constitutional law professor Cass Sunstein noted in 2017, "If you are listing the five most consequential Presidents in American history, you could make a good argument that Nixon belongs on the list. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Sources: Electoral and popular vote totals based on data from the Office of the Clerk of the U.S. House of Representatives and. [172], Nixon had been a firm supporter of Kennedy in the 1961 Bay of Pigs Invasion and 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis; on taking office he stepped up covert operations against Cuba and its president, Fidel Castro. Bob Woodward, whose stories were based largely on information from an unnamed source called “Deep Throat.” The mysterious identity of Deep Throat became a news story in its own right and led to decades of speculation. Thanks in part to an ill-timed blast from President Lyndon Johnson, who called Nixon a "chronic campaigner," the presidential hopeful found himself the center of attention right before an election in which Republicans made tremendous gains. [218], At the urging of Senate Majority Leader Mike Mansfield, Senator Sam Ervin of North Carolina took the lead in the Senate's Watergate investigation. [15] Humphrey won the presidential nomination at the August Democratic National Convention in Chicago, and Senator Edmund Muskie of Maine was selected as his running mate. Facing removal by Congress, Nixon resigned from office. He maintained close relations with the Cuban-American exile community through his friend, Bebe Rebozo, who often suggested ways of irritating Castro. Richard Nixon was elected the 37th President of the United States (1969-1974) after previously serving as a U.S. Representative and a U.S. After the 1973 Arab-Israeli war (the “Yom Kippur War”), Kissinger’s back-and-forth visits between the Arab states and Israel (dubbed “shuttle diplomacy”) helped to broker disengagement agreements but did little to improve U.S. relations with the Arabs. Pat Nixon), a teacher and amateur actress, after the two were cast in the same play at a local community theatre. By 1971 the Soviets were more amenable to improved relations with the United States, and in May 1972 Nixon paid a state visit to Moscow to sign 10 formal agreements, the most important of which were the nuclear arms limitation treaties known as SALT I (based on the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks conducted between the United States and the Soviet Union beginning in 1969) and a memorandum, the Basic Principles of U.S.-Soviet Relations, summarizing the new relationship between the two countries in the new era of détente. As U.S. president, Richard Nixon created the Environmental Protection Agency, proposed an affirmative action program in federal employment, expanded but then ended U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War, and established direct relations with the People’s Republic of China. [129] With the failure of the peace talks, Nixon implemented a strategy of "Vietnamization," which consisted of increased U.S. aid and Vietnamese troops taking on a greater combat role in the war. [220], Fearing that Nixon would use him as a scapegoat for the cover-up, John Dean began to cooperate with Watergate investigators. [165], Upon taking office, Nixon took several steps to signal to the Soviets his desire for negotiation. During the Republican primaries of 1972, conservatives revolted against what they perceived as the left-leaning presidency of Richard Nixon. Nestled on 213 acres of meadow, woodland and aquatic habitats Nixon Park supports a wide variety of plant and animal life. In the years after his defeat, Nixon established himself as an important party leader who appealed to both moderates and conservatives. Chinese leaders, meanwhile, were receptive to closer relations with the U.S. for several reasons, including hostility to the Soviet Union, a desire for increased trade, and hopes of winning international recognition. Chief of Staff H. R. Haldeman and adviser John Ehrlichman emerged as his two most influential staffers regarding domestic affairs, and much of Nixon's interaction with other staff members was conducted through Haldeman. Jaworski later subpoenaed 64 tapes that Nixon continued to withhold on grounds of “executive privilege,” and in July 1974 the Supreme Court ruled unanimously that Nixon’s claims of executive privilege were invalid. [62] Between Nixon's accession to office and his resignation in August 1974, unemployment rates had risen from 3.5% to 5.6%, and the rate of inflation had grown from 4.7% to 8.7%. Nixon promulgated the Nixon Doctrine, which called for indirect assistance by the United States rather than direct U.S. commitments as seen in the ongoing Vietnam War. This page was last edited on 30 November 2020, at 03:33. [174] As part of Track II, CIA operatives approached senior Chilean military leaders, using false flag operatives, and encouraged a coup d'état, providing both finances and weapons. Richard Nixon Park, located in Springfield Township, features a 14,000-square-foot Nature Center. After eight years in the shadow of Eisenhower and eight more years out of office, Richard M. Nixon of California, to capitalize on the Red Scare by accusing the Truman administration of disloyalty. [138], North Vietnam launched the Easter Offensive in March 1972, overwhelming the South Vietnamese army. [159] Upon touching down in the Chinese capital of Beijing, Nixon made a point of shaking Zhou's hand, something which then-Secretary of State John Foster Dulles had refused to do in 1954 when the two met in Geneva. Richard Nixon was the 37th president of the United States. [28], For the major decisions of his presidency, Nixon relied on the Executive Office of the President rather than his Cabinet. For his part, Nixon could not dismiss Reagan’s ideas outright. [136] By mid-1971, disillusionment with the war had reached a new high, as 71 percent of Americans believed that sending soldiers to Vietnam had been a mistake. Results of the American presidential election, 1972. The Johnson administration had agreed to suspend bombing in exchange for negotiations without preconditions, but this agreement never fully took force. [225] When the tapes were turned over a few weeks later, Nixon's lawyers revealed that one audio tape of conversations held in the White House on June 20, 1972 featured an 18½ minute gap. His chief rivals for the nomination were Governor Ronald Reagan of California, who commanded the loyalty of many conservatives, and Governor Nelson Rockefeller of New York, who had a strong following among party moderates. [80][81], Nixon also pursued environmental diplomacy,[82] and Nixon administration official Russell E. Train opened a dialog on global environmental issues with Soviet Ambassador Anatoly Dobrynin. Nixon spoke with Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin during their moonwalk, calling the conversation "the most historic phone call ever made from the White House". He also resigned from the presidency in 1974. Once he became president, he sought to establish enough stability in the region for the South Vietnamese government to take over. Their candidate, John Ashbrook, was a … In particular, the pardon covered Nixon's actions during the Watergate scandal. In an August 1969 televised address, Nixon proposed the Family Assistance Plan (FAP), which would establish a national income floor of $1600 per year for a family of four. [148] Nixon's goal of closer relations with China and the Soviet Union was closely linked to ending the Vietnam War,[149][150][151] since he hoped that rapprochement with the two leading Communist powers would pressure North Vietnam into accepting a favorable settlement. Hubert H. Humphrey and third-party candidate George Wallace on a vague platform promising an honourable peace in Vietnam—Nixon said that he had a “secret plan” to end the war—the restoration of law and order in the cities, a crackdown on illegal drugs, and an end to the draft. [106] On May 24, 1972, Nixon approved a five-year cooperative program between NASA and the Soviet space program, culminating in the Apollo–Soyuz Test Project, a joint mission of an American Apollo and a Soviet Soyuz spacecraft in 1975. Nixon’s hostile questioning of Hiss during the committee hearings did much to make his national reputation as a fervent anticommunist. By that time the House Judiciary Committee had already voted to recommend three articles of impeachment, relating to obstruction of justice, abuse of power, and failure to comply with congressional subpoenas. Richard Milhous Nixon was the 37th President of the United States of America, serving from 1969 to 1974.He was the only U.S. President to resign the office. [59], As Nixon began his second term, the economy was plagued by a stock market crash, a surge in inflation, and the 1973 oil crisis. [62] Nixon re-imposed price controls in June 1973, echoing his 1971 plan, as food prices rose; this time, he focused on agricultural exports and limited the freeze to 60 days. [54], When Congress extended the Voting Rights Act of 1965 in 1970 it included a provision lowering the age qualification to vote in all elections—federal, state, and local—to 18. Then, in a series of episodes that came to be known as the During his presidency, Nixon also signed the Clean Air Act of 1970, and the Clean Water Act. Although damning, the tapes did not contain the “smoking gun” that would prove that the president himself ordered the break-in or attempted to obstruct justice. In December 1972, Nixon ordered another massive bombing campaign, Operation Linebacker II; domestic criticism of the operation convinced Nixon of the necessity to quickly reach a final agreement with North Vietnam. He also made groundbreaking trips to several Eastern European nations, including Romania, Yugoslavia, and Poland. Delivered several public addresses. Otherwise don't bother me. Nevertheless, he appointed more women to administration positions than Lyndon Johnson had. Nixon also obstructed the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in its inquiry and authorized secret cash payments to the Watergate burglars in an effort to prevent them from implicating the administration. [102] The shootings increased tensions on other college campuses, and more than 75 colleges and universities were forced to shut down until the start of the next academic year. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? After it was disclosed that Eagleton had undergone mental health treatment, including electroshock therapy, Eagleton withdrew from the race. [29] Early in Nixon's tenure, conservative economist Arthur F. Burns and liberal former Johnson administration official Daniel Patrick Moynihan served as important advisers, but both had left the White House by the end of 1970. [182] In October 1973, after Israel declined Egyptian President Anwar Sadat's offer of negotiations over the lands it had won control of in the Six-Day War, Egypt and Syria launched a surprise attack against Israel. In a televised broadcast to the nation, Ford, who had succeeded to the presidency upon Nixon… The United States and the Soviet Union continued to compete for worldwide influence, but tensions had eased considerably since the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis. [221] On June 25, Dean accused Nixon of having helped to plan the burglary's cover-up,[222] and the following month, White House aide Alexander Butterfield testified that Nixon had a secret taping system that recorded his conversations and phone calls in the Oval Office. As the Watergate scandal heated up in mid-1973, Vice President Spiro Agnew became a target in an unrelated investigation of corruption in Baltimore County, Maryland of public officials and architects, engineering, and paving contractors. In a statement accompanying the release of the tapes on August 5, 1974, Nixon accepted blame for misleading the country about when he had been told of the truth behind the Watergate break-in, stating that he had a lapse of memory. [76], There was a renewed push for health insurance reform in 1974. The scandal resulted in Nixon’s resignation in 1974. Additionally, he vetoed the Clean Water Act of 1972, and after Congress overrode the veto, Nixon impounded the funds Congress had authorized to implement it. U.S. Pres. [70], In August 1970, Democratic Senator Ted Kennedy introduced legislation to establish a single-payer universal health care system financed by taxes and with no cost sharing. Nixon's proposed reform of federal welfare programs did not pass Congress, but Congress did adopt one aspect of his proposal in the form of Supplemental Security Income, which provides aid to low-income individuals who are aged or disabled. Wallace held little hope of winning the election outright, but he hoped to deny either major party candidate a majority of the electoral vote, thus sending the election to the House of Representatives, where segregationist congressmen could extract concessions for their support. When the ancestors of Nixon’s mother moved from Germany to England in the 1600s, they changed their last names from Milhausen to Milhous. In the days following the arrests, Nixon secretly directed the White House Later that year, in Oregon v. Mitchell (1970), the Supreme Court held that Congress had the authority to lower the voting age qualification in federal elections, but not the authority to do so in state and local elections. John Dean, to oversee a cover-up to conceal the administration’s involvement. He won over 60% of the popular vote, receiving 47,169,911 votes to McGovern's 29,170,383, and won an even larger Electoral College victory, garnering 520 electoral votes to 17 for McGovern. Richard M. Nixon (right) accepting the Republican Party's U.S. presidential nomination in 1968. [87] Cox and the Senate Watergate Committee both asked Nixon to turn over the tapes, but Nixon refused, citing executive privilege and national security concerns. The Supreme Court ruled for the newspapers in the 1971 case of New York Times Co. v. United States, thereby allowing for the publication of the excerpts. He is the only US president to resign from office. Nixon died of a massive stroke in New York City in April 1994, 10 months after his wife’s death from, This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Richard-Nixon, Spartacus Educational - Biography of Richard Nixon, United States Senate - Biography of Richard M. Nixon, The White House - Biography of Richard M. Nixon, Richard M. Nixon - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Richard Nixon - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Though some scholars believe that Nixon "has been excessively maligned for his faults and inadequately recognised for his virtues",[1] Nixon is generally ranked as a below average president in surveys of historians and political scientists. [184] In 1973, in response to the U.S. support of Israel in the Yom Kippur War, OPEC countries cut oil production, raised prices, and initiated an embargo targeted against the United States and other countries that had supported Israel. McGovern was nominated on the first ballot, but the convention endured a chaotic vice presidential selection process. In ceremonies after his death, Pres. Addressed the. Some 30,000 young men fled to Canada to evade the draft between 1970 and 1973. Despite his resounding victory, Nixon would soon be forced to resign in disgrace in the worst political scandal in United States history. [105] Nixon, however, was unwilling to keep funding for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the high level seen through the 1960s, and rejected NASA Administrator Thomas O. Paine's ambitious plans for the establishment of a permanent base on the moon by the end of the 1970s and the launch of a manned expedition to Mars in the 1980s. The campaign was memorable for an unprecedented series of four televised debates between the two candidates. Nixon survived two potentially fatal political losses in 1960 and 1962. [128], In mid-1969, Nixon began efforts to negotiate peace with the North Vietnamese, but negotiators were unable to reach an agreement. [17] The assassinations of Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr., combined with disaffection towards the Vietnam War, the disturbances at the Democratic National Convention, and a series of city riots in various cities, made 1968 the most tumultuous year of the decade. The CRP also established fake organizations that nominally supported Muskie, and used those organizations to attack other Democratic candidates; Senator Henry Jackson was accused of having been arrested for homosexual activities, while Humphrey was alleged to have been involved in a drunk driving incident. Eisenhower himself charged the administration with responsibility for the communist invasion of Korea and won wide acclaim when he dramatically promised that if elected he would visit…. [111][112], Nixon proposed reducing the number of government departments to eight. [62] The price controls became unpopular with the public and business people, who saw powerful labor unions as preferable to the price board bureaucracy. However, the NATO allies of the United States generally did not play a large role in Nixon's foreign policy, as he focused on the Vietnam War and détente. Another vacancy arose in 1969 after Fortas resigned from Court, partially due to pressure from Attorney General Mitchell and other Republicans who criticized him for accepting compensation from financier Louis Wolfson. [64] On taking office, Nixon established the Council of Urban Affairs, under the leadership of Daniel Patrick Moynihan, to develop a welfare reform proposal. Nixon had campaigned as an ERA supporter in 1968, though feminists criticized him for doing little to help the ERA or their cause after his election. [23] Johnson sought to conclude a peace agreement with North Vietnam in the week before the election; controversy remains over whether the Nixon campaign interfered with any ongoing negotiations between the Johnson administration and the South Vietnamese by engaging Anna Chennault, a prominent Chinese-American fundraiser for the Republican party. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Through détente, he hoped to "minimize confrontation in marginal areas and provide, at least, alternative possibilities in the major ones." Nixon spent his last years campaigning for American political support and financial aid for Russia and the other former Soviet republics. Township, features a 14,000-square-foot Nature Center of both houses of Congress, born on 9! 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